What Is Ce On The Periodic Table cerium | Uses, Properties, & Facts

You are searching about What Is Ce On The Periodic Table, today we will share with you article about What Is Ce On The Periodic Table was compiled and edited by our team from many sources on the internet. Hope this article on the topic What Is Ce On The Periodic Table is useful to you.

cerium | Uses, Properties, & Facts

cerium (Ce), chemical element, the most abundant of the rare-earth metals.Commercial-grade cerium is iron-gray in colour, silvery when in a pure form, and about as soft and ductile as tin. It oxidizes in air at room temperature to form CeO2. The metal slowly reacts with water, and it quickly dissolves in diluted acids, except hydrofluoric acid (HF) that leads to the formation of the protective fluoride (CeF3) layer on the surface of the metal. Cerium turnings (from when the metal is filed, ground, or machined) easily self-ignite in air, burning white-hot. Its pyrophoric nature accounts for one of its important metallurgical applications in lighter flints. The metal should be stored either in vacuum or in an inert atmosphere. The metal is a moderately strong paramagnet both below and above room temperature and becomes antiferromagnetic below 13 K (−260 °C, or −436 °F). It becomes superconducting in the millikelvin range at pressures exceeding 20 kbar.Cerium as the oxide (ceria) was discovered in 1803 by Swedish chemists Jöns Jacob Berzelius and Wilhelm Hisinger, working together, and independently by German chemist Martin Klaproth. It was named after the asteroid Ceres, which was discovered in 1801. Cerium occurs in bastnasite, monazite, and many other minerals. It also is found among the fission products of uranium, plutonium, and thorium. Cerium is about as abundant as copper and nearly three times as abundant as lead in the igneous rocks of Earth’s crust.Four isotopes occur in nature: stable cerium-140 (88.45 percent) and radioactive cerium-142 (11.11 percent), cerium-138 (0.25 percent), and cerium-136 (0.19 percent). Excluding nuclear isomers, a total of 38 radioactive isotopes of cerium have been characterized. They range in mass from 119 to 157 with half-lives as short as 1.02 seconds for cerium-151 and as long as 5 × 1016 years for cerium-142.The metal is prepared by electrolysis of the anhydrous fused halides or by metallothermic reduction of the halides with alkali or alkaline-earth metals. It exists in four allotropic (structural) forms. The α-phase is face-centred cubic with a = 4.85 Å at 77 K (−196 °C, or −321 °F). The β-phase forms just below room-temperature and is double close-packed hexagonal with a = 3.6810 Å and c = 11.857 Å. The γ-phase is the room temperature form and is face-centred cubic with a = 5.1610 Å at 24 °C (75 °F). The δ-phase is body-centred cubic with a = 4.12 Å at 757 °C (1,395 °F).Cerium compounds have a number of practical applications. The dioxide is employed in the optics industry for fine polishing of glass, as a decolourizer in glass manufacturing, in petroleum cracking catalysts, and as a three-way automotive emission catalyst that makes use of its dual valence (3+/4+) characteristics. Together with the other rare-earth metals, cerium is a constituent of numerous ferrous alloys to scavenge sulfur and oxygen and to nodulize cast iron. It is also used in nonferrous alloys, most commonly to improve high-temperature oxidation resistance of superalloys. Misch metal (typically 50 percent cerium, 25 percent lanthanum, 18 percent neodymium, 5 percent praseodymium, and 2 percent other rare earths) is primarily used for lighter flints and alloying additions.Along with praseodymium and terbium, cerium is different from the other rare earths in that it forms compounds in which its oxidation state is +4; it is the only rare earth that exhibits a +4 oxidation state in solution. Salts of the Ce4+ ion (ceric salts), which are powerful but stable oxidizing agents, are used in analytical chemistry to determine oxidizable substances such as ferrous iron (iron in the +2 oxidation state). Cerium in its +3 oxidation state behaves as a typical rare earth.

Video about What Is Ce On The Periodic Table

The Periodic Table: Crash Course Chemistry #4

Hank gives us a tour of the most important table ever, including the life story of the obsessive man who championed it, Dmitri Mendeleev. The periodic table of elements is a concise, information-dense catalog of all of the different sorts of atoms in the universe, and it has a wealth of information to tell us if we can learn to read it.

Pssst… we made flashcards to help you review the content in this episode! Find them on the free Crash Course App!
Download it here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo
Download it here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ

Table of Contents
Dmitri Mendeleev – 0:45
Mendeleev’s Organization of the Periodic Table – 2:31
Relationships in the Periodic Table – 5:03
Why Mendeleev Stood Out from his Colleagues – 7:09
How the Periodic Table Could be Improved – 8:28

More info about the cylindrical periodic table of elements: http://www.av8n.com/physics/periodic-table.htm

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet?
Facebook – http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse
Twitter – http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse
Instagram – https://www.instagram.com/thecrashcourse/

CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids

Question about What Is Ce On The Periodic Table

If you have any questions about What Is Ce On The Periodic Table, please let us know, all your questions or suggestions will help us improve in the following articles!

The article What Is Ce On The Periodic Table was compiled by me and my team from many sources. If you find the article What Is Ce On The Periodic Table helpful to you, please support the team Like or Share!

[ad_1]

Rate Articles What Is Ce On The Periodic Table

Rate: 4-5 stars
Ratings: 80 62
Views: 43445364

[ad_2]

Search keywords What Is Ce On The Periodic Table

What Is Ce On The Periodic Table
way What Is Ce On The Periodic Table
tutorial What Is Ce On The Periodic Table
What Is Ce On The Periodic Table free

Xem thêm:  Omega-3 Fatty Acids Are Important Because They omega-3 fatty acid | chemical compound

Leave a Reply