What Does The Competitive Exclusion Principle State principle of competitive exclusion | biology

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principle of competitive exclusion | biology

principle of competitive exclusion, also called Gause’s principle, or Grinnell’s axiom, (after G.F. Gause, a Soviet biologist, and J. Grinnell, an American naturalist, who first clearly established it), statement that in competition between species that seek the same ecological niche, one species survives while the other expires under a given set of environmental conditions. The result is that each species occupies a distinct niche.

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Community ecology 2 competitive exclusion principle

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In ecology, the competitive exclusion principle,[1] sometimes referred to as Gause’s law of competitive exclusion or just Gause’s law,[2] is a proposition which states that two species competing for the same resources cannot coexist if other ecological factors are constant. When one species has even the slightest advantage or edge over another, then the one with the advantage will dominate in the long term. One of the two competitors will always overcome the other, leading to either the extinction of this competitor or an evolutionary or behavioral shift towards a different ecological niche. The principle has been paraphrased into the maxim “complete competitors cannot coexist”

Based on field observations, Joseph Grinnell formulated the principle of competitive exclusion in 1904: “Two species of approximately the same food habits are not likely to remain long evenly balanced in numbers in the same region. One will crowd out the other”.[3] Russian ecologist Georgy Gause formulated the law of competitive exclusion based on laboratory competition experiments using two species of Paramecium, P. aurelia and P. caudatum.The conditions were to add fresh water everyday and input a constant flow of food. Although P. caudatum initially dominated, P. aurelia recovered and subsequently drove P. caudatum extinct via exploitative resource competition. However, Gause was able to let the P. caudatum survive by differing the environmental parameters (food, water). Thusly, the Gause law is valid only if the ecological factors are constant. Gause also studied competition between two species of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces kefir, and found that Schizosaccharomyces kefir consistently outcompeted Saccharomyces cerevisiae by producing a higher concentration of ethyl alcohol. Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers.
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