Types of Meters Used in Geographic Measurement


Geographic measurement plays an important role in various fields such as cartography, surveying, and GIS (Geographic Information Systems). It involves the use of various tools and techniques to accurately measure and represent the physical features of the earth’s surface.

One of the fundamental tools used in geographic measurement is meters. They are used to measure different distances, angles, and heights, among other parameters, to accurately represent the earth’s surface. Let’s take a look at the types of meters commonly used in geographic measurement.

1. Tape Measure
The tape measure is a basic but essential tool used to measure distance in geographic measurement. It consists of a long, narrow strip of metal or cloth with marked measurements in feet, meters, or centimeters. Tape measures are generally used for shorter distances and are commonly used in surveying and mapping tasks.

2. Total Station
Total station is a sophisticated electronic instrument used for measuring distance, angles, and heights in geographic measurement. It combines the functions of a theodolite (for measuring horizontal and vertical angles) and an electronic distance meter (for measuring distances). The data collected by a total station can be directly transferred to a computer for further analysis and mapping.

3. GPS (Global Positioning System)
GPS technology has greatly revolutionized geographic measurement by providing highly accurate and precise measurements of locations and distances. It works by using a network of satellites to determine the coordinates of a specific location on the earth’s surface. GPS is widely used in various fields such as navigation, disaster management, and environmental monitoring.

4. Rangefinders
Rangefinders are optical instruments used to measure the distance between the observer and a target. They work by emitting a laser beam towards the target and measuring the time it takes for the beam to bounce back. Rangefinders are commonly used in geographic measurement for tasks such as measuring the height of buildings and trees.

5. LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)
LiDAR is an advanced remote sensing technology that uses laser pulses to measure distances and create precise 3D maps. It works by emitting rapid pulses of light towards the earth’s surface and measuring the time it takes for the light to bounce back. LiDAR is commonly used in cartography, land surveying, and urban planning.

6. Altimeters
Altimeters are instruments used to measure the altitude or height of an object above a reference point. In geographic measurement, altimeters are used to measure the elevation of the earth’s surface. They work by measuring changes in air pressure as the altimeter moves from one point to another. Altimeters are essential tools in tasks such as creating topographic maps and measuring the height of mountains.

7. Clinometers
Clinometers are instruments used to measure vertical angles, particularly the slope of the land. They consist of a sighting mechanism and a protractor for measuring the angle. Clinometers are commonly used in agricultural and forestry applications to measure the slope of the land for irrigation and harvesting purposes.

In conclusion, meters are essential tools used in geographic measurement for accurately representing the features of the earth’s surface. From basic tape measures to advanced LiDAR technology, there are various types of meters that cater to different measurement needs. With the advancement of technology, geographic measurement continues to evolve, providing more accurate and precise data for various fields and applications.